The state of Colombia is the 26th largest country in the world and the fourth largest in South America, with a land area of 1,141,748 square kilometers. The geographical position sees it located in the extreme north-west of the South American territory, it is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil, to the south by Ecuador and Peru, to the north by the Caribbean Sea, to the north-west by Panama, and to the west by Pacific Ocean.
Since 1886, its official name has been the Republic of Colombia in homage to the discoverer of the New World, Christopher Columbus. It is the only South American country that has coastlines in the Pacific and in the Caribbean Sea. Several islands also belong to Colombian territory, such as the archipelago of San Andrés y Providencia. The nation is the fourth largest country in South America, and the third largest by population of Latin America.
The climate of Colombia varies according to the geographical location of the area, from the extreme cold conditions present in the Andean glaciers, to the warmest climates present above sea level, with two dry seasons and two rainy seasons influenced by the trade winds and the convergence zone intertropical, in turn influenced by the effects of El Niño and La Niña, important periodic variations in the temperature of the eastern Pacific Ocean which have serious consequences on the climate of the entire planet and in particular on those of central-western America, of the easternmost parts of the Asian continent and Australia. The temperature is relatively uniform for most of the year, and is determined by various factors such as rainfall, the intensity of solar radiation, winds, altitude, continentality and atmospheric humidity, which gives life to a mosaic of climates and microclimates: the climate of the savannah is characterized by a dry and a rainy season, typical of the Orinoco region. A very humid jungle climate, with abundant rainfall and little temperature variation, typical of the Pacific region, the Amazon River, the Magdalena and Catatumbo watersheds. A humid and rainy climate with high temperatures in Caquetá, Vaupés, part of Antioquia and Córdoba. Arid climate and in the deserts of Tatacoa and Candelaria. Flooding, tornadoes, tornadoes and high winds often occur in the Caribbean region of Colombia, especially in the vicinity of the Atlantic department. The regions of La Guajira and the archipelago of San Andrés y Providencia are exposed to the turbulence of Atlantic cyclones.
The system of government consists of a representative democracy, with a president elected by direct popular vote which takes place every four years, who is not re-electable. The official language is Spanish. English is also spoken on the islands of San Andrés and Providencia. There are no nationality restrictions for entering Colombia. An entry visa is not required, for Italian citizens a valid passport is sufficient, provided they remain in Colombian territory for a maximum of 90 days, for exclusively tourist purposes. The time zone difference with Italy is: in solar time period - 6 hours in summer time period - 7 hours. No vaccination is required for cities, while a specific vaccination is required for some areas such as the Amazon. The local currency is the Colombian Peso ($) which has a fluctuating value in relation to the dollar. Foreign currency, both in cash and in checks (eurocheques), can be changed at banks and money changers, but it is preferable to use dollars or, even better, credit cards. Virtually all department stores, restaurants and shops accept international credit cards. The international dialing code for Colombia is 0057. The area code appears in the section dedicated to cities. To call a mobile phone throughout Colombia, prepend the area code 0057 to the full mobile number.
Religion and electricity.
Although there is absolute freedom of worship and conditions for their exercise especially in large cities, most of the population in Colombia is Catholic. the water is drinkable in the vast majority of cities, however it is advisable to always drink bottled water. The electricity in use is 110 volts. The sockets are of the American type with flat plugs with two pins.
As far as tourism, travel and vacations are concerned, the main places in Colombia are Cartagena, Santa Marta and San Andres. Famous beaches in Cartagena are El Laguito and Bocagrande flanked by numerous clubs and animated by the typical 'Palenqueras', the tropical fruit sellers with baskets placed on their heads. Santa Marta is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada, on one of the most beautiful bays on the Atlantic coast, this city has a privileged climate due to the mild breeze coming from the mountains. The island of San Andres is about thirteen kilometers long and three wide for a total area of 26 square kilometers, it is located in the Antilles Sea off the coast of Nicaragua. It belongs to the Colombian state and is about 700 kilometers from Cartagena. It has been a free port since 1952 to encourage commercial development. It is difficult to find cold in the Colombian Caribbean and in the archipelago of San Andrés where the temperature hardly drops above 20°, therefore we recommend comfortable and light clothing, using shoes and sports clothing for excursions. From Italy it is possible to reach Colombia with departures from Malpensa Airport of Milan, making a stopover in Paris, Frankfurt, Amsterdam or Caracas in Venezuela .
The official classification of hotel facilities is provided on the basis of express and formal indications of the local authorities of San Andrés where the service is provided. Using the internet, it is possible to carry out the tests from the comfort of your home hotel reservations
Upon arrival at the San Andrés airport there is an entrance fee to be paid in cash currently worth approx nine US dollars. Similarly to departure an exit tax from San Andrés will be payable, usually not included in Tour Operator fees, valued at approximately $29 USD. The local dishes of the island they are basically prepared from fish, lobster and crab, most often savored with the addition of Coconut. Usually in hotels and restaurants it comes anyway international cuisine is served.
In Colombia there are the El Dorado Airport of Bogota, International Alfonso Bonilla Aragón of Cali, International Ernesto Cortissoz of Barranquilla. and the Airport International José María Córdova of Medellín.