Little known compared to the other islands, Cabrera belongs to the Balearic group. The Cabrera archipelago is located in the southern part of the island of Majorca in front of Cap de les Salines, where a natural park has been created, protected from mass tourism. The archipelago of Cabrera is made up of 19 islands and islets, of which the largest in surface area is Cabrera, followed by Illa dels Conills. The other important islands are Ses Rates, els Estels, l'Imperial, les Bledes, es Fonoll, na Rodona, l'Esponja, na Plana, na Pobra, s'Illot Pla, s'Illot and na Foradada.
Geologically the surface is actually a southern outcrop of the mountain range Sierra de Levante. The territory has a typically Mediterranean vegetation, with a very extensive community of scrubland with pine forests. One of the characteristics of the island of Cabrera is the development of vegetation with large extensions of Phoenician junipers and other species such as the wild olive tree, the female germander, the buckthorn and the crown of thorns, the endemic buckthorn and the Balearic boxwood. Overall, the archipelago has 22 endemic species of the Balearic Islands and one subspecies endemic to Cabrera, the Rubia angustifolia ssp caespitosa.
To visit, the toy port, the castle and the tiny archipelago floating in an intense green sea, with clear and transparent waters. Its underwater wealth is great, with an enormous variety of fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Even the terrestrial fauna has a rich ornithological variety, while in the sky they fly freely the fish eagle and the peregrine falcon.
Throughout the year, the Balearics enjoy 300 days of sunshine, a circumstance that makes them a truly remarkable tourist destination, especially for those coming from the Nordic countries. The climate of the island of Cabrera is mild, characteristic of the Mediterranean area. The average temperature fluctuates around 19°C in spring, 27°C in summer, 20°C in autumn and 15°C in winter. In order to visit the island of Cabrera it is necessary to request in advance the appropriate authorization.
In 1991 the island of "Cabrera" was declared a maritime and terrestrial national park due to its high landscape and ecological value. The Spanish National Institute for Conservation of Nature monitors the area and tourist visits. A special permit is required to navigate in the area and travel to the area, however guided boat trips are organized from Mallorca at least once a week to this haven of tranquility away from the summer bustle of the other Balearic Islands.
As far as the fauna is concerned, Cabrera is a strategic point in the migratory route of birds. There are about 130 bird species known on the archipelago. Some species of marine colonies such as cormorants, Corsican gulls, shearwaters and Atlantic shearwaters, storm birds are welcome on this island. The reptiles present are the lizard Podarcis lilfordi, now extinct in Majorca, it is easily found in all the islets of Cabrera even with subspecies. Furthermore, the seabed of Cabrera is important due to its characteristics, both from the point of view of diversity and productivity. The consequence of the remoteness of urban centers from the archipelago reduces the pollution of its waters to a minimum, creating an environment where biospecies can to keep.
Cabrera Maritime Terrestrial National Park
At the beginning of 1988, the Parliament of the Balearic Islands took the decision to initiate the procedure to declare Cabrera as a National Maritime-Territory Park and in March 1991 it decided on it.
Today, just over an hour by boat from Majorca, the Cabrera Archipelago is one of the best island ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean. The Terrestrial Maritime National Park includes a whole set of natural treasures from these limestone islands and islets, important colonies of seabirds, varieties of fish, echinoderms, with one of the best preserved sea beds of all the coasts of Spain.
The Park has a typically Mediterranean vegetation where woody shrubs with leathery and small leaves predominate, bushes perfectly adapted to the rigors of the Mediterranean climate, with various species of trees including: Pines, Oaks, Rubies, Junipers, Olives. It constitutes an important point of reference in the migratory route of about 150 species of birds, both during the spring and in the autumn period. Among the main birds that live in the archipelago we mention the seagull, the fishing eagle and the peregrine falcon. The seabed represents a significant part of the environment, with more than 200 species of fish and numerous invertebrates.
For more information, contact the Oficina del Parque Nacional Plaza de España, 8; 07002 Palma de Mallorca. Phone: 971725010.
It is possible to visit the park only by obtaining navigation permits issued by the Administration of the National Maritime and Terrestrial Park of Cabrera, or by using the tourist boats called "golondrinas" departing from the ports of Colònia de Sant Jordi or from Portopetro.
The total surface of the Park measures 10,021 hectares, of which 8,703 maritime and 1,318 terrestrial, belonging to the municipality of Palma de Mallorca.
Among the other characteristics of the park we mention the maximum altitude of 172 meters above sea level and the maximum depth of the seabed of 118 meters.
One of the small islets that make up the Balearic archipelago is Cabrera, declared a Park Terrestrial Maritime National. Facing the small fishing port of Colònia de Sant Jordi, about 25 kilometers from Capo Salinas stands Cabrera Primo National Maritime and Terrestrial Park.